Kwiecień 6, 2013

Studia w praktyce

Wiele z Was pyta jak wyglądają moje studia i odpowiadałam na to pytanie wiele razy. Dla realnego wyobrażenie poniżej praca, która napisałam na temat niedoborów minerałów. Jest to jedna z pierwszych jakie oddałam, więc temat nie jest zawiły, przez co ci, którzy nie znają dobrze angielskiego (bardziej terminów biochemicznych itd.) też będą w stanie zrozumieć zagadnienie. Oddaję dwie takie prace na miesiąc plus kilka konkretnych testów.

Mineral
Imbalances
Minerals have a crucial role In a human health and cannot
be overlooked as they are major components of a healthy body.  There are two kinds of minerals: macro and
trace. Both are essential for optimal health. Minerals control the movement of
water in the cells and tissues, maintain the structural and functional
properties of proteins, are involved in muscular contraction and the nerve
impulse. They also acts as catalyst for many enzyme reactions. Since we cannot
make minerals on our own, we must ingest them from food or water and there is
no surprise that many disease begins with a mineral deficiency or a mineral
toxicity . In today’s world due to over farming practices where the minerals
have become depleted in the soil many people have to deal with mineral
deficiency.
Although the soil may be rich in minerals and one
still can have a poor mineral status, since the absorption and retention of
those minerals may be impaired.  There
are many factors that can have influence on the absorption rate of minerals
from the human gut. Absorption process may be either impeded or accelerate
depend on those factors.  
Nutritional status of the person determines
the efficiency of absorption, so strong need for a mineral will result in
greater absorption rate. Also the form in which mineral is consumed is also
important, because one chemical form might be more beneficial than other. On
the whole there are minerals that will compete with
other minerals to reduce their absorption. 
Moreover overall psychical and chemical nature of gut
content is a factor that can influence the rate of abortion (i.e. a diet rich
in a high refined fats, carbohydrates and animal products or mucus-producing
foods). Regarding to diet, an absence or presence of fibers and sugar can
affect mineral absorption too. Some substance may bind themselves to minerals
and as a result the abortion process is  greater. Those ‘ligands’ are not insoluble and
can be absorbed without no hesitation.  A
passage time also plays an important role in the mineral abortion process. Too
short transmit  time  from mouth to anus result in no minerals
recovery and disturbed absorption. Likewise proper levels of stomach acid are needed to adequately absorb minerals. It must be mentioned
that common leaky gut
syndrome also results in significant mineral deficiencies.
Some elements in the diet can decrease mineral availability by chemically
binding to the mineral in an insoluble form and protect them from adequate absorption.
The negative nutritional impact of anti-nutrients such as phytic acid, oxalic
acid and polyphenols is common concern regarding to mineral uptake.
Phytic acid is the major phosphorus storage compound in plant seeds and can
account for up to 80% of seed total. One can find it in beans, seeds, nuts,
grains ( especially in the bran or outer hull) and in some fruits and
vegetables.
Phytic acid was found to be a strong agent that grabs on to or chelates
important minerals such as zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium, chromium, and
manganese. In this form, the compound is referred to as phytate. The reduction
of the availability of minerals occur by forming unavailable complexes.  As mineral absorption requires that the
mineral remain in the ionic state, the ionized mineral salt is very unstable,
thus phytic acid can form very stable complexes and thereby restricting its
bio-availability because bounded minerals generally cannot be absorbed in the
intestine.
Although the amount of phytate in grains, nuts, legumes and seeds are
highly variable it is believed that high-phytate diets result in mineral
deficiencies. Especially zinc and iron deficiencies were reported as a consequence
of high phytate intakes (Kaufman 1971).
Oxalic acid is recognized as another binding agent and therefore causes
reduction of minerals availability. Oxalic acid is a naturally occurring
substance in plants, animals, and in humans. It can bind and form (with several
essential minerals) less soluble salts known as oxalates. Oxalates also occur
naturally in plants. . Foods that contain significant amounts of oxalic acid
are (in order from highest to lowest): cocoa, buckwheat, beets, celery,
collards, eggplant, kale, parsley, rhubarb, spinach, blueberries, strawberries,
lemon, currant and lime. Long-term consumption of foods high in oxalic acid can
lead to nutrient deficiencies (i.e. calcium or iron).
Polyphenol is other naturally occurring photochemical that can bind
minerals. It is said that eating certain polyphenols decreased the amount of
iron the body absorbs, which can increase the risk of developing an iron
deficiency. Coffee and tea are great source of polyphenols and decreased iron
absorption due to drinking tea has been reported (Yang, Landau, 2000).
A person can
improve the absorption of minerals
with  presence of  another nutrients in a meal
that enhances absorption (i.e. vitamin C
improves iron absorption, and vitamin D
aids in the absorption of calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium, manganese
and vitamin B1 seem to be synergists, zinc and vitamin B6  are often synergistic). Such interactions are
called synergists in biology.  Given
these facts supplementing minerals together has a different effect than giving
them separately.  Sometimes separate
administration is better, while at other times minerals should be given
together. Although it has to be pointed that supplementation of a single trace
element can result in deficiency of another mineral due to mineral antagonism. “All
minerals interact with and influence each other, and a balance between them
must be maintained if health and nutrient efficiency are to be achieved.” (Swilling,
2004).
Some minerals are opposed or antagonized by other minerals. Mineral
antagonism is crucial aspect of mineral availability.  One mineral can compete with another for
carrier proteins, other minerals compete for binding sites of enzymes. In
competing pair case overall imbalance is disturbed because an excess of one
mineral leads to loss of the other. Furthermore some minerals will be bound to
the carrier protein before others. For example copper is preferentially bound
to tranferrin, when competing with iron.
Not only the influence of antagonist mineral can impair a mineral balance
and as a result create mineral deficiency. In nature plants, animals or herbs
that tend to accumulate high concentrations of some minerals can be found. That
spectacular mineral content may have a functional meaning for tissue (strength,
hardness) or simply provide a mineral storage source. Sometimes there is no
obvious reason for mineral concentration.
The most common example of accumulation is calcium in animal bones or
silica in aquatic plant leaves. Some aquatic plants accumulate iodine from
seawater even to toxic levels. The brown alga known as kelp is a great example of
high iodine accumulation. Moreover „the trace mineral content of kelp is
among the highest of any single known source” (Balch, 2002).
Selenium can be accumulated in the Hydrangea plant or in brazil nuts. I
believe that eating just one Brazil nut per day could prevent selenium
deficiency, and study shows that “consumption of two Brazil nuts daily is as
effective for increasing selenium status as 100 mg Se as selenomethionine
“(Thomson, Chisholm, McLachlan, Campbell, 2008). For this given reason overconsumption
of brazil nuts can be problematic due to toxic effect of a high selenium dose.
Oysters are great source of zinc and even as small dose as 5g might be used
as a supplement. On the other hand, there is a big concern regarding to consuming
too much seafood. It is common belief that fish are full of contaminants like
mercury, PCBs and dioxins. Mercury levels can be quite high in certain types of
fish because fish absorb mercury from the water and from the organisms that
they consume.  Methylmercury, an organic
form of mercury, is the predominant form of mercury in fish and luckily selenium
can be protective to the mercury toxicity. I tend to believe that if a fish contains
higher levels of selenium than mercury, it is safe to eat because selenium has
high binding affinity for mercury (Ralston, Blackwell, Lloyd, Raymond, 2008).
Herbs generally contain higher mineral concentrations than cultivated
plants. Especially wild natural herbs contain dense, high quantities of
minerals. Many herbs are high in magnesium, potassium and selenium.
It is obvious that some people need to ingest more minerals than others due
to factors like dietary mineral status, stress, infection, exercises or hard
physical work. Although we simply cannot forget that every person is born with
certain strengths and weaknesses.  In other
words we all have our own „constitution”, that is a genetic
predisposition towards certain illnesses or weak areas in the body. From
Medical Lexicon: „A good constitution is one in which every organ is well
developed, and endowed with due energy, so that all perform their functions
with equal facility” (Dunglison, 1839). Hence we may develop conditions
based on our constitutional weaknesses. Moreover it is said that a tendency to
a mineral deficiency can be inherited. Depending on the inherited constitution of the
individual, one can have one or more organs
that are weaker than others or sometimes whole person can be constitutionally
weak. A weak organ in
a strong body produces different characteristics, yet it is still a weakness
for that person and is not able to take up and retain the minerals properly or
need a greater supply. As a result a person with such lower vitality must
constantly replenish minerals losses (Hechtman, 2012). To determine a persons’
weakness seems to be crucial for any effective treatment as well as healing and
strengthening those weak organs.
We generally don’t need a great amount of minerals in order to maintain a
healthy body. Sometimes a balance between minerals, that are present in the
cells in greater concentrations, can be easily upset. Sodium and potassium are
great example due to their dominant role in total body water distribution and
conduction of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, nerve function and heartbeat.
Hence, a proper sodium/potassium balance is required for an overall health.
A high sodium/potassium ratio often indicates a magnesium deficiency.
Magnesium has a lowering effect upon sodium, because it acts as a co-factor to
the sodium pump enzyme, so any deficiency will lead to compromised sodium pump
mechanism. Furthermore, many trace minerals are required as well for enzymes
production, as for the cell’s production of ATP. For example zinc lowers sodium
and raises the potassium level and it is very common to see zinc deficiency
nowadays. Therefore supplementing with trace minerals has a stimulating effect
upon the sodium/potassium balance.
Moreover it seems that potassium regulates the excretion of calcium in the
urine, which is probably why its consumption is associated with high bone
mineral density (Zhu, Devine, Prince, 2009).
            Malnutrition is a real
issue in today’s developed world. People are overeating and still are
undernourished with serious mineral imbalances. One must realize that there are
many potential reasons bedsides dietary intake and a holistic approach is seems
to me like the only proper way for administration a mineral imbalance.
References:
Balch, Phyllis A., (2002), Prescription for Herbal
Healing, p.86, Penguin
Dunglison, Robley, (1839),
Medical Lexicon, Blanchard
Hechtman , Leah , (2012), Clinical Naturopathic
Medicine, Elsevier Australia
Kaufman HW, (1971), Effect of pH on calcium binding by
phytic acid and its inositol phosphoric acid derivatives and on the solubility
of their calcium salts, Arch Oral Biol 16(4):445-60
Lopez H. Walter, Leenhardt Fanny, Coudray Charles, Remesy Christian,
(2002), Minerals and phytic acid interactions: is it a real problem for human
nutrition?, International Journal of Food Science and Technology,7, 727–739
Morrison
SC, Savage GP, (2003), Oxalates, 
Elsevier Science Ltd, 4282-4287
Noonan
SC , Savage GP ,(1999), Oxalate content of foods and its effect on humans,
http://img2.tapuz.co.il/forums/1_162103952.pdf
Ralston Nicholas V.C. and Carla, Blackwell, J. Lloyd,
Raymond Laura J,(2008), Dietary and tissue selenium in relation to
methylmercury toxicity http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/oceanography/courses_html/OCN331/Mercury3.pdf
Swilling, Jacob, (2004), Minerals: Key to Vibrant
Health and Life Force, p. 163, Lulu Press
Taylor,
Steve  (2008), Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Academic
Press, vol. 54
Thomson CD, Chisholm A, McLachlan SK, Campbell JM, (2008), Brazil nuts: an
effective way to improve selenium status, Department of Human Nutrition,
University of Otago,
Torre M, Rodriguez AR, Saura-Calixto F, (1991), Effects of dietary fiber
and phytic acid on mineral availability, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.
1991;30(1):1-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1657026
Yang Chung S., Landau Janelle M., 
(2000), Effects of Tea Consumption on Nutrition and Health, http://jn.nutrition.org/content/130/10/2409.long#ref-38
Zhu K, Devine A, Prince RL., (2009), The effects of high potassium
consumption on bone mineral density in a prospective cohort study of elderly
postmenopausal women, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18575949

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