Wiele z Was pyta jak wyglądają moje studia i odpowiadałam na to pytanie wiele razy. Dla realnego wyobrażenie poniżej praca, która napisałam na temat niedoborów minerałów. Jest to jedna z pierwszych jakie oddałam, więc temat nie jest zawiły, przez co ci, którzy nie znają dobrze angielskiego (bardziej terminów biochemicznych itd.) też będą w stanie zrozumieć zagadnienie. Oddaję dwie takie prace na miesiąc plus kilka konkretnych testów.
Minerals have a crucial role In a human health and cannot be overlooked as they are major components of a healthy body. There are two kinds of minerals: macro and trace. Both are essential for optimal health. Minerals control the movement of water in the cells and tissues, maintain the structural and functional properties of proteins, are involved in muscular contraction and the nerve impulse. They also acts as catalyst for many enzyme reactions. Since we cannot make minerals on our own, we must ingest them from food or water and there is no surprise that many disease begins with a mineral deficiency or a mineral toxicity . In today’s world due to over farming practices where the minerals have become depleted in the soil many people have to deal with mineral deficiency.
Although the soil may be rich in minerals and one still can have a poor mineral status, since the absorption and retention of those minerals may be impaired. There are many factors that can have influence on the absorption rate of minerals from the human gut. Absorption process may be either impeded or accelerate depend on those factors.
Nutritional status of the person determines the efficiency of absorption, so strong need for a mineral will result in greater absorption rate. Also the form in which mineral is consumed is also important, because one chemical form might be more beneficial than other. On the whole there are minerals that will compete with other minerals to reduce their absorption.
Moreover overall psychical and chemical nature of gut content is a factor that can influence the rate of abortion (i.e. a diet rich in a high refined fats, carbohydrates and animal products or mucus-producing foods). Regarding to diet, an absence or presence of fibers and sugar can affect mineral absorption too. Some substance may bind themselves to minerals and as a result the abortion process is greater. Those ‘ligands’ are not insoluble and can be absorbed without no hesitation. A passage time also plays an important role in the mineral abortion process. Too short transmit time from mouth to anus result in no minerals recovery and disturbed absorption. Likewise proper levels of stomach acid are needed to adequately absorb minerals. It must be mentioned that common leaky gut syndrome also results in significant mineral deficiencies.
Some elements in the diet can decrease mineral availability by chemically binding to the mineral in an insoluble form and protect them from adequate absorption. The negative nutritional impact of anti-nutrients such as phytic acid, oxalic acid and polyphenols is common concern regarding to mineral uptake.
Phytic acid is the major phosphorus storage compound in plant seeds and can account for up to 80% of seed total. One can find it in beans, seeds, nuts, grains ( especially in the bran or outer hull) and in some fruits and vegetables.
Phytic acid was found to be a strong agent that grabs on to or chelates important minerals such as zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium, chromium, and manganese. In this form, the compound is referred to as phytate. The reduction of the availability of minerals occur by forming unavailable complexes. As mineral absorption requires that the mineral remain in the ionic state, the ionized mineral salt is very unstable, thus phytic acid can form very stable complexes and thereby restricting its bio-availability because bounded minerals generally cannot be absorbed in the intestine.
Although the amount of phytate in grains, nuts, legumes and seeds are highly variable it is believed that high-phytate diets result in mineral deficiencies. Especially zinc and iron deficiencies were reported as a consequence of high phytate intakes (Kaufman 1971).
Oxalic acid is recognized as another binding agent and therefore causes reduction of minerals availability. Oxalic acid is a naturally occurring substance in plants, animals, and in humans. It can bind and form (with several essential minerals) less soluble salts known as oxalates. Oxalates also occur naturally in plants. . Foods that contain significant amounts of oxalic acid are (in order from highest to lowest): cocoa, buckwheat, beets, celery, collards, eggplant, kale, parsley, rhubarb, spinach, blueberries, strawberries, lemon, currant and lime. Long-term consumption of foods high in oxalic acid can lead to nutrient deficiencies (i.e. calcium or iron).
Polyphenol is other naturally occurring photochemical that can bind minerals. It is said that eating certain polyphenols decreased the amount of iron the body absorbs, which can increase the risk of developing an iron deficiency. Coffee and tea are great source of polyphenols and decreased iron absorption due to drinking tea has been reported (Yang, Landau, 2000).
A person can improve the absorption of minerals with presence of another nutrients in a meal that enhances absorption (i.e. vitamin C improves iron absorption, and vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium, manganese and vitamin B1 seem to be synergists, zinc and vitamin B6 are often synergistic). Such interactions are called synergists in biology. Given these facts supplementing minerals together has a different effect than giving them separately. Sometimes separate administration is better, while at other times minerals should be given together. Although it has to be pointed that supplementation of a single trace element can result in deficiency of another mineral due to mineral antagonism. “All minerals interact with and influence each other, and a balance between them must be maintained if health and nutrient efficiency are to be achieved.” (Swilling, 2004).
Some minerals are opposed or antagonized by other minerals. Mineral antagonism is crucial aspect of mineral availability. One mineral can compete with another for carrier proteins, other minerals compete for binding sites of enzymes. In competing pair case overall imbalance is disturbed because an excess of one mineral leads to loss of the other. Furthermore some minerals will be bound to the carrier protein before others. For example copper is preferentially bound to tranferrin, when competing with iron.
Not only the influence of antagonist mineral can impair a mineral balance and as a result create mineral deficiency. In nature plants, animals or herbs that tend to accumulate high concentrations of some minerals can be found. That spectacular mineral content may have a functional meaning for tissue (strength, hardness) or simply provide a mineral storage source. Sometimes there is no obvious reason for mineral concentration.
The most common example of accumulation is calcium in animal bones or silica in aquatic plant leaves. Some aquatic plants accumulate iodine from seawater even to toxic levels. The brown alga known as kelp is a great example of high iodine accumulation. Moreover "the trace mineral content of kelp is among the highest of any single known source" (Balch, 2002).
Selenium can be accumulated in the Hydrangea plant or in brazil nuts. I believe that eating just one Brazil nut per day could prevent selenium deficiency, and study shows that “consumption of two Brazil nuts daily is as effective for increasing selenium status as 100 mg Se as selenomethionine “(Thomson, Chisholm, McLachlan, Campbell, 2008). For this given reason overconsumption of brazil nuts can be problematic due to toxic effect of a high selenium dose.
Oysters are great source of zinc and even as small dose as 5g might be used as a supplement. On the other hand, there is a big concern regarding to consuming too much seafood. It is common belief that fish are full of contaminants like mercury, PCBs and dioxins. Mercury levels can be quite high in certain types of fish because fish absorb mercury from the water and from the organisms that they consume. Methylmercury, an organic form of mercury, is the predominant form of mercury in fish and luckily selenium can be protective to the mercury toxicity. I tend to believe that if a fish contains higher levels of selenium than mercury, it is safe to eat because selenium has high binding affinity for mercury (Ralston, Blackwell, Lloyd, Raymond, 2008).
Herbs generally contain higher mineral concentrations than cultivated plants. Especially wild natural herbs contain dense, high quantities of minerals. Many herbs are high in magnesium, potassium and selenium.
It is obvious that some people need to ingest more minerals than others due to factors like dietary mineral status, stress, infection, exercises or hard physical work. Although we simply cannot forget that every person is born with certain strengths and weaknesses. In other words we all have our own "constitution", that is a genetic predisposition towards certain illnesses or weak areas in the body. From Medical Lexicon: "A good constitution is one in which every organ is well developed, and endowed with due energy, so that all perform their functions with equal facility" (Dunglison, 1839). Hence we may develop conditions based on our constitutional weaknesses. Moreover it is said that a tendency to a mineral deficiency can be inherited. Depending on the inherited constitution of the individual, one can have one or more organs that are weaker than others or sometimes whole person can be constitutionally weak. A weak organ in a strong body produces different characteristics, yet it is still a weakness for that person and is not able to take up and retain the minerals properly or need a greater supply. As a result a person with such lower vitality must constantly replenish minerals losses (Hechtman, 2012). To determine a persons’ weakness seems to be crucial for any effective treatment as well as healing and strengthening those weak organs.
We generally don't need a great amount of minerals in order to maintain a healthy body. Sometimes a balance between minerals, that are present in the cells in greater concentrations, can be easily upset. Sodium and potassium are great example due to their dominant role in total body water distribution and conduction of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, nerve function and heartbeat. Hence, a proper sodium/potassium balance is required for an overall health.
A high sodium/potassium ratio often indicates a magnesium deficiency. Magnesium has a lowering effect upon sodium, because it acts as a co-factor to the sodium pump enzyme, so any deficiency will lead to compromised sodium pump mechanism. Furthermore, many trace minerals are required as well for enzymes production, as for the cell's production of ATP. For example zinc lowers sodium and raises the potassium level and it is very common to see zinc deficiency nowadays. Therefore supplementing with trace minerals has a stimulating effect upon the sodium/potassium balance.
Moreover it seems that potassium regulates the excretion of calcium in the urine, which is probably why its consumption is associated with high bone mineral density (Zhu, Devine, Prince, 2009).
Malnutrition is a real issue in today's developed world. People are overeating and still are undernourished with serious mineral imbalances. One must realize that there are many potential reasons bedsides dietary intake and a holistic approach is seems to me like the only proper way for administration a mineral imbalance.
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